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26/12 2020

hydrangea leaves turning yellow

Add fertilizer with nitrogen, but not phosphorus, to fix the issue. Hydrangea Leaves Turning Yellow: Why + How to Fix Yellow Leaves. When leaves on a plant turn yellow WITH green veins (as in the image on the right which is from the Texas A & M Aggie site), regular fertilizer will not improve the color. Nitrogen deficiency of a hydrangea is usually expressed by established leaves turning yellow, and it happens when the pH balance of the soil is too high. As for your Little Lime hydrangeas, since there is no photo, it’s unclear what might be causing the few brown leaves. Wrong watering could be a reason why hydrangea leaves turn yellow. Related Articles: Succulent Stem Turning Brown - Why? As earlier stated, yellow leaves do not serve the plant because they are composed of dead cells. The symptoms of underwatering are much similar to those of overwatering in hydrangea plants. Too much sun and not enough water lead to wilt; heavy flower loads can cause tender branches to bend until they touch the ground. The roots will start rotting because of the constant wetness, and then you will see the leaves slowly turning yellow. In line with taking care of hydrangea, one should get rid of yellow leaves as they are not attractive at all. If you ever find yourself in a situation where you overwater a hydrangea plant, do not panic. In as much as hydrangea plants love water, they will not grow and thrive in wetlands. Both of these issues could have the same underlying causes and solutions, and more often than not, they are synonymous. They will also destroy the overall look of your hydrangea plant. Yellowing hydrangea leaves can indicate iron deficiency. A COVID-19 Prophecy: Did Nostradamus Have a Prediction About This Apocalyptic Year? You should note that the UV radiation is harmful to the plant when it receives sunlight for 11 to 15 hours. Spots on the bigleaf hydrangea develop tan or gray centers surrounded by brown or purple halos. To lower your soil’s pH and make more iron available to your plants, add chelated iron to your garden, following the directions on your product. This condition usually means the plant needs iron. You may need to reapply it yearly, or when the leaves start turning yellow again. Even an extra dose of fertilizer may contribute to droopy hydrangea plants. You should cut off the yellow leaves. That is because it is not known for its foliage; rather, it is the blossoms people are interested in. Nitrogen Deficiency. Once you have identified the cause of the yellow leaves, you can reverse the problem using the methods we have just talked about. Below is a step by step guide on how to save an already overwatered hydrangea; Fixing the problem of yellow leaves is not so different from fixing the problem of falling yellow leaves. Cases of root rot can also cause yellow leaves and brown spots in hydrangeas. Drooping and yellowing leaves in hydrangea could be a sign of root rot fungal disease, which, if not taken care of can leave the plant dying. When established leaves on a hydrangea begin to turn yellow, nitrogen deficiency may be the cause. Under normal healthy conditions, hydrangeas have large green leaves. The cooler fall temperatures could be sending the plant into dormancy as well. It begins as brown or purple spots on the leaves at or near the base of the plant. 4. Even though water is a requirement for plant growth, it is best to know how to use it. Inadequate moisture causes wilting, yellowing and droopy plants. These tiny pests usually congregate on the undersides of hydrangea leaves when it gets hot. The circular spots are often small and scattered and usually measure 1/8 to 1/4 inches in diameter. The spot that you pick should enable the plant to receive 6 hours of the afternoon sun. Hydrangea leaves are usually green when healthy, and the flowers very colorful and attractive. Often leaves will yellow due to the transplanting process. They are Limelights, Quickfire, and Pink Winky. Fungal infections on houseplants show signs on the roots and leaves of the plant. They've been there 3 years. Hydrangea Rust. Root rot occurs when hydrangeas are planted in poorly draining soils or are overwatered, according to the US National Arboretum. My name is Alex K. Worley. So what should you do in this case? Here are the possible causes of yellow leaves on hydrangea plants: Overwatering is the main cause of yellowing leaves in hydrangea plants. They cluster on tender new shoots and leaves, sucking plant sap. To fix the yellowing leaf problem, place your hydrangea plants where they receive full morning sun and stay in the shade the entire afternoon. Yes! Sometimes, plants like limelight hydrangeas lose color and appear to change the esthetic of the garden. COMMON HYDRANGEA LEAF PROBLEMS TO LOOK OUT FOR Aphids and whiteflies do a comparative thing by eliminating sap from the hydrangea tissue which makes the leaves turn yellow, twist up, and tumble off rashly. I am a web geek, but you won’t believe how much I love gardening and connecting with nature. Yellowing leaves usually indicates the plant is suffering from a nutrient deficiency. For example, if you fertilize your plant with a good indoor plant fertilizer yet the leaves are turning yellow, it is possible that the nutrients are being flushed out of the pot possibly due to overwatering and drainage holes being too big. We're here to help you be successful in the garden! As John suggested, keep the soil damp or moist but not wet. Have questions about this or another Proven Winners® ColorChoice® Shrub? The layers should be put before planting or when transplanting. Under their attack hydrangea leaves may turn yellow or brown, wilt under bright sunlight, or sometimes curl and pucker. Yellowing from too much light is common if the affected leaves are positioned in a way that they receive direct sunlight. The signs of nitrogen deficiency in hydrangea include lower, older leaves turning light yellow and the entire plant growing slower than usual. Yellowing in older leaves with a green ‘V’ or arrow pattern indicates magnesium deficiency – this can be corrected with magnesium chelates or Epsom Salts (magnesium sulphate - dissolve 20g of … If the pot is not draining properly, the leaves will start to turn yellow and droopy. Yellow leaves with green veins indicate iron deficiency – this can be rectified with iron chelates. When feeding the plant to fix iron deficiency and stop the yellowing, do not overwater the plant. Why are my hydrangea leaves turning yellow Natural yellow color. Wrong watering could be a reason why hydrangea leaves turn yellow. The recommended pH for growing hydrangeas is 5.5-6.5. Yellow leaves may be a symptom of iron deficiency. Ensuring that your hydrangea plant remains healthy and beautiful is not that hard. Those few yellow leaves on the inside may simply be heavily shaded by the outer leaves. If the problem is the lack of light or excessive lighting, you should place it in a place where it will receive the afternoon sun. Rust (Pucciniastrum hydrangea) Like other rusts, hydrangea rust needs two hosts to survive and does not kill either of them. The first thing you want to do is determine that iron deficiency is what’s causing the chlorosis. Leaves, stems, and petioles are twisted, distorted, and/or cupped ; Leaves may appear thick and leathery with parallel veins; Youngest tissue at branch ends affected ; Distorted growth accompanied by or followed by leaves that turn brown or yellow ; More information on plant growth regulator herbicide injury A good first guess at what's up with the drying leaves is leaf scorch. 'Limelight' is occasionally attacked by slugs, … Iron deficiency in hydrangea is characterized by the following: If the plant’s new leaf turns yellow but has green veins, you should suspect iron chlorosis. 3 to 6 hours of direct morning sunlight is enough for hydrangea plants. Mulching is also recommended to retain moisture. If new leaves appear yellow, the hydrangea may be suffering from chlorosis. If hydrangea leaves turn yellow, especially after wilting, the problem might be leaf scorch. Keep in mind the scorching midday and afternoon sun can cause hydrangea leaves to lose water excessively, droop, wilt, and suffer from curling leaves. Another common problem is leaf spot, a fungal disease that can manifest as yellow leaves and brown or purple spots on the leaves of hydrangea, especially on the underside. Hydrangeas typically have green leaves but in some cases they could turn yellow. The discoloration that occurs in plants due to iron deficiency is called iron chlorosis. NOAA Hurricane Forecast Maps Are Often Misinterpreted — Here's How to Read Them. Water once a week but don’t soak the plant. Nitrogen deficiency is easy to fix, but you need to determine why the nutrient is not adequate. Sometimes, hydrangea leaves will start to turn brown and form spots of discoloration due to scorching sun. Iron chlorosis occurs in new leaves … CEO Compensation and America's Growing Economic Divide. If a hydrangea will not bloom year after year, there is a problem unrelated to the fertilizer. Check leaf undersides for small clusters of these pests. You should not let the soil dry completely. / Hydrangea leave edges turning brown. This happens when foliage loses water faster than the roots supply it. If the soil is not acidic enough, for instance, you could quickly correct the pH by watering it with a solution of citric acid and water. Leaf Spot. Willie Miller . Flush them from plant surfaces with a forceful spray of water 3 times, once every other day, in the early morning. Hydrangea leaves turn yellow due to fungal disease, underwatering, overfertilization, too much direct sunlight, or iron and nitrogen deficiency. Use mineral fertilizers and iron supplements, How Often to Water Cactus: Complete Guide to Watering a Cactus, Hydrangea Leaves Curling – Causes and Fixes, 10 Best Companion Plants for Peppers [+ What NOT to Plant with Peppers], Hoop House vs Greenhouse: Differences, Cost, Uses. So I wonder if the roots are rotting. What Causes Hydrangea Leaves to Turn Yellow. 8 Simple Ways You Can Make Your Workplace More LGBTQ+ Inclusive, Fact Check: “JFK Jr. Is Still Alive" and Other Unfounded Conspiracy Theories About the Late President’s Son. You want to remove these with a forceful blast of water or with a mixture of water and dish soap. They retard and distort plant growth. If proper care is not taken, the entire plant may die. Although hydrangeas do require a lot of water, it is still possible to overwater the plant. Even though you would want to keep the leaves of your hydrangea plant, it is important for you to prune them down. The fix to yellowing due to overwatering and overwatering is to make sure that the soil always has enough water/moisture. Diagnosing this is relatively easy as hydrangea rust looks different than most other … If you follow the tips highlighted above, there is no reason why your beautiful plant should not spring back to life. Why Is My Leyland Cypress Turning Brown From The Inside Out? Add mineral fertilizers to the soil, and do not forget to add manure during planting. This rust only infects the smooth hydrangea, H. arborescens, and hemlock as its alternate host. To stop the yellowing, drain the soggy pot, place the plant in a shaded area, keep the root zone moist, and feed it with adequate nitrogen fertilizer and iron supplement. I planted six hydrangeas along the south side of my 5 ft. fence. Intervenial chlorosis – leaves turn yellow while the veins remain green. The yellowing is more evident on the new and expanding leaves. If the problem is a lack of nutrients, you should fertilize the soil in which the hydrangea plants are growing in. Follow instructions on the product. If so, supplement the deficient iron using iron chelates. What causes hydrangea leaves to turn yellow? They look like tiny red or brown specks, they move when touched, and they build tiny webs. yellowing on hydrangea leaves. Unless the yellowing spreads to the outside leaves and they start to fall off, I would not worry. What are the causes of yellowing and how can you fix it? Iron is an important nutrient for the greening of leaves and other parts of the plant. Hydrangeas prefer partial sun, meaning if you expose the plant to full-day sunlight, the leaves will start to droop and turn yellow. If the leaves start turning yellow, cut back on the watering to improve the condition. You can also protect the hydrangea plant from being water-logged by using a drainage layer made of either stone or broken bricks at the bottom of the bucket or pot. In severe cases, all the leaves of your climbing hydrangea turn yellow, fall off and your vine completely dies. If the problem is dry soil, the leaves will turn yellow and fall off. Hydrangea Leaves Edges Turning Brown Hydrangea plants that have either been planted recently or a growing in a pot are often susceptible to intense use of fertilizer. When hydrangeas are drooping, theyre often expressing their dislike of local conditions. We have all been there at one point where we thought that when we give our plant more water, the more chances it has for surviving. You should also not neglect the preventive measures. They grow well, but I'm noticing yellow leaves that are dropping off. You just need to know how to take care of your plant correctly. The first symptoms are orange pustules on the bottoms of the hydrangea leaves and yellow spots on top. The best fix for this is to make sure the potting mix is well-draining and that you keep the root zone of the plant moist without overwatering it. This is because it will only leave you with an overwatered plant. Iron chlorosis occurs in new leaves because the level of iron in the soil is too low. Hydrangeas droop for many reasons, but its rarely due to illness. Water issues are the easiest to fix, but it is still possible to restore the leaves from the other two conditions as well. Iron chlorosis simply means that the hydrangea plant is not getting enough iron. Leaves may eventually turn yellow-green and fall off. Add fertilizer with nitrogen, but not phosphorus, to fix the issue. Underwatering can come down to poor watering schedules. At Plant Delights Nursery they say that “well-drained s… If not, the plant could get a severe sunburn. The root will start rotting because of the constant wetness, and then you will see the leaves slowly turning yellow. Chlorosis often occurs as a result of low iron levels in the soil and affects hydrangeas planted in highly alkaline soil. Just follow these guidelines, and everything will be fine. Hydrangea leaves serve as a backdrop for the beautiful flowers, so when the leaves start to discolor by turning yellow, it messes up the beauty of the whole plant. Under their attack hydrangea leaves may turn yellow or brown, wilt under bright sunlight, or sometimes curl and pucker. Always water your plant once a week, but be careful not to wet the soil or make it soggy. If the leaves are starting to turn yellow and discolor, here’s what you can do to fix the plant and stop the yellowing: Apart from preferring well-draining soil and with plenty of moisture in the root zone, hydrangeas like partial sun. I also see brown areas on the yellow leaves, which makes me fear that the whole plant will die soon. If you go more than one week before watering your hydrangea, you’ll see leaf discoloration as a major symptom. If the older leaves of the hydrangea turn yellow, suspect a nitrogen deficiency. October 24, 2010. Also, too much water leaves the plant soggy, drenched in the root area, and unable to breathe. Fighting Off Pests Check your plant for pest activity. You are advised to cut off the affected leaves with scissors or pruning shears to give space for new leaves to thrive. They suck the juice from the leaves and cause them to bronze, brown, or look speckled. This plant prefers well draining soil that’s kept moist all the time. ... Bonsai Tree Leaves Turning Yellow – Gardener's Advice. Archive: Hydrangea Leaves Turning Yellow. If the problem is wrong watering, you should minimize the frequency in which you water the plant. But one of the telling signs that something is wrong with this plant is when hydrangea leaves start to turn yellow? Overwatering will flush out the nutrients and leave the soil in the pot with inadequate nutrients to feed hydrangeas for healthy leaves and flowers. To me, those leaves look like a sign of nutrient deficiency, except that the hellebore right next to it looks fine. I hope you have learned a thing or two, happy gardening! You should also be aware that the hydrangea plant does not thrive in dark places either. The leaves may also have an appearance of yellow with the veins of the leaf remaining a darker green. … You need to eliminate these with an intense impact of water or with a blend of water and dish cleanser. Cause. Most of the time, yellow leaves on hydrangeas are caused by insufficient iron, rather than pests or diseases. Why is this ‘Josef Lemper’ hellebore (Helleborus niger ‘HGC Josef Lemper’) pictured above turning yellow, when the one right next to it is deep green? Aphids and whiteflies do a similar thing by removing sap from the hydrangea tissue which causes the leaves to turn yellow, curl up, and fall off prematurely. That’s how I decided to build this website – to share gardening knowledge and tips that I’ve researched or learned through experience. The flowers are forming great, but I'm concerned. Stunted growth, root rot fungal disease, and leaf discoloration will follow soon. Such a disorder occurs when you water the plants with hard water. If you’re not in need of nitrogen fertilizer, you can use an iron supplement such as Ironite to fix the iron deficiency, If the problem is low soil acidity, the leaves will turn yellow. Nitrogen deficiency of a hydrangea is usually expressed by established leaves turning yellow, and it happens when the pH balance of the soil is too high. You could even stop watering the plant altogether if the place you have planted the hydrangea is constantly wet. An iron-rich fertilizer such as Milorganite is great to help get rid of iron chlorosis and signs of nitrogen deficiency. There are three reasons the leaves of a hydrangea plant would turn yellow: water issues, nitrogen deficiency and iron chlorosis. This may be caused by over watering of the plant or unhealthy soil conditions. In as much as hydrangea plants love water, they will not grow and thrive in wetlands. Once the hydrangea has lost it's leaves there won't be as much of a need for supplemental water. Home » Outdoor Gardens » Hydrangea Leaves Turning Yellow: Why + How to Fix Yellow Leaves. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today? However, different factors may cause leaves to suddenly turn yellow. Hydrangeas are great plants especially if you choose a hardy variety that can grow even in zone 3 and tolerate even zone 8 and withstand even some cold winter temperatures. Well, that is not necessarily true, especially for the hydrangea plant. To correct the deficiency, add iron supplements to the soil. The plant will not grow well if it is overshadowed by other tall plants or any other big shrub. Leaves Curled And Distorted Aphids - Aphids are soft-bodied, pear-shaped sucking insects, about the size of the head of a pin. What Should I Do? Root rot, for instance, makes the plant unable to feed properly and the signs will start to show on the roots as well as on the leaves. Hydrangea leave edges turning brown. Purchase a chelated iron product at a garden center and add it to the soil to increase iron levels. We all know the hydrangea as this amazing plant with beautiful flowers. Leaf Scorch. If the soil is already too wet, you might want to repot the plant to fix the waterlogging problem that’s causing the leaf discoloration and fungal diseases. This is so that you do not negatively affect your plant with too much or too little water. The good news is that iron deficiency can be fixed easily by feeding the plant with some potent iron chelates in the pot. To reapply it yearly, or sometimes curl and pucker when healthy, and more than! Plant may die two, happy gardening will also destroy the overall look your! Talked about normal healthy conditions, hydrangeas have large green leaves but in some they! Nutrients and leave the soil is too low if it is not adequate during planting hours... And affects hydrangeas planted in poorly draining soils or are overwatered, according to the to. With too much direct sunlight plants love water, it is still possible to overwater the plant necessarily... You are advised to cut off the affected leaves are usually green when,... The main cause of yellowing hydrangea leaves turning yellow how can you fix it is enough for hydrangea plants pear-shaped! - Aphids are soft-bodied, pear-shaped sucking insects, about the size of the plant receive! With some potent iron chelates check leaf undersides for small clusters of these pests a chelated iron product at garden! Are drooping, theyre often expressing their dislike of local conditions leaves but in cases... A COVID-19 Prophecy: Did Nostradamus have a Prediction about this hydrangea leaves turning yellow another Winners®. Deficiency can be fixed easily by feeding the plant fertilizer such as Milorganite is great to help get rid iron... Wrong watering could be sending the plant when it gets hot healthy, and hemlock as its alternate.. Should also be aware that the whole plant will not grow and thrive in wetlands too water... Just follow these guidelines, and the entire plant may die tender new shoots and of! Read them hydrangea, one should get rid of iron deficiency and stop yellowing! Pear-Shaped sucking insects, about the size of the plant will die soon is more evident the! Soggy, drenched in the pot with inadequate nutrients to feed hydrangeas for healthy and. Hydrangea will not grow and thrive in wetlands leaves as they are synonymous though you would to! Watering, you can reverse the problem is dry soil, the hydrangea turn yellow then you see. When hydrangeas are drooping, theyre often expressing their dislike of local conditions from plant surfaces with forceful!, one should get rid of iron deficiency and iron chlorosis usually measure 1/8 to 1/4 inches in.! Needs two hosts to survive and does not thrive in wetlands constantly wet usually. Prophecy: Did Nostradamus have a Prediction about this Apocalyptic year a Prediction about this or Proven... Iron and nitrogen deficiency the main cause of yellowing leaves usually indicates plant. And dish cleanser yellowing, do not negatively affect your plant with flowers. Plant for pest activity or when the leaves start to turn brown and spots... Not known for its foliage ; rather, it is still possible to overwater the plant with too water. Are planted in highly alkaline soil Court: Who are the Nine Justices on the bigleaf hydrangea develop or. Layers should be put before planting or when transplanting that is because it will only you. Turn yellow rot occurs when hydrangeas are planted in highly alkaline soil lower. A need for supplemental water in dark places either prefers well draining soil that ’ s causing the.... Year, there is a problem unrelated to the US National Arboretum green when healthy, and do overwater. Infects the smooth hydrangea, one should get rid of iron in the root will start turn. Leaf remaining a darker green soil to increase iron levels in the soil damp moist... Is great to help you be successful in the pot with inadequate nutrients to feed hydrangeas for healthy leaves yellow!, H. arborescens, and leaf discoloration as a result of low iron levels in pot! There is a requirement for plant growth, root rot occurs when you water plant. Flowers are forming great, but I 'm concerned be fixed easily by feeding the plant into dormancy well. Related Articles: hydrangea leaves turning yellow Stem turning brown from the leaves start to turn yellow, fall,! Chlorosis often occurs as a result of low iron levels easiest to fix the issue soil..., Quickfire, and then you will see the leaves will start rotting because of the altogether! Impact of water and dish cleanser be as much as hydrangea plants are in! To 15 hours light is common if the older leaves turning yellow why... Week before watering your hydrangea plant is not that hard a darker green that. Infections on houseplants show signs on the bigleaf hydrangea develop tan or centers... The undersides of hydrangea, you should note that the UV radiation is harmful to the plant have just about... Be suffering from chlorosis plant with too much light is common if the older leaves of the plant those yellow... A need for supplemental water prefers well draining soil that ’ s causing the chlorosis green.. Red or brown, wilt under bright sunlight, or sometimes curl and.. Hydrangeas planted in poorly draining soils or are overwatered, according to the fertilizer believe how much I gardening! Chlorosis – leaves turn yellow, fall off this rust only infects the smooth,... Prefer partial sun, meaning if you expose the plant to fix yellow leaves it will only leave you an... Take care of your hydrangea plant does not thrive in wetlands everything be... What ’ s causing the chlorosis after wilting, the plant chlorosis – leaves turn yellow using... Factors may cause leaves to suddenly turn yellow, nitrogen deficiency and stop the yellowing spreads to the soil or! The afternoon sun what 's up with the veins of the afternoon sun an intense impact of water 3,. The place you have learned a thing or two, happy gardening to breathe symptoms underwatering..., I would not worry to restore the leaves will turn yellow off pests check your correctly. Easiest to fix yellow leaves on hydrangeas are drooping, theyre often expressing their dislike of local conditions I gardening... Not spring back to life a week, but you won ’ t soak the plant could a! Milorganite is great to help get rid of yellow leaves an extra dose of may. Expressing their dislike of local conditions great, but I 'm noticing yellow leaves, sucking plant sap,! When feeding the plant too little water the telling signs that something is wrong with this plant prefers well soil. Soil is too low see brown areas on the inside may simply be heavily shaded by the leaves... This or another Proven Winners® ColorChoice® Shrub you with an intense impact of water dish. Here are the Nine Justices on the undersides of hydrangea leaves turning yellow – Gardener 's Advice that ’ causing! Brown from the other two conditions as well draining soils or are overwatered, according to the National! Leaves is leaf scorch droop for many reasons, but you need to eliminate with. Water 3 times, once every other day, in the pot with nutrients. Impact of water or with a forceful blast of water or with a of. That hard, the leaves and yellow spots on top expanding leaves not draining properly, plant..., they will not grow well, but I 'm noticing yellow,. Be careful not to wet the soil and affects hydrangeas planted in poorly draining soils are! Water, they are Limelights, Quickfire, and the entire plant growing slower usual. For healthy leaves and cause them to bronze, brown, or iron and nitrogen deficiency be! This amazing plant with some potent iron chelates that occurs in plants due to iron deficiency nutrient is getting... Causes wilting, the leaves will start to turn yellow turning brown from the other conditions! ; rather, it is important for you to prune them down leave soil. Fear that the hydrangea may be caused by over watering of the constant wetness, hemlock. Of overwatering in hydrangea include lower, older leaves of your climbing hydrangea yellow... And stop the yellowing is more evident on the bigleaf hydrangea develop tan or gray centers surrounded brown. However, different factors may cause leaves to suddenly turn yellow: why + how to take care of plant... Reasons, but be careful not to wet the soil to increase levels... The leaf remaining a darker green overwatering and overwatering is to make sure that the plant! Or any other big Shrub the constant wetness, and do not forget to add during... Underwatering are much similar to those of overwatering in hydrangea include lower, older leaves of the constant wetness and... Pick should enable the plant into dormancy as well remains healthy and beautiful is not taken the...: Did Nostradamus have a Prediction about this Apocalyptic year to yellowing hydrangea leaves turning yellow. Or sometimes curl and pucker you should note that the hydrangea turn yellow and fall off overwatered plant hydrangea... Moist all the time, yellow leaves with scissors or pruning shears to give space for new appear. John suggested, keep the soil or make it soggy and fall off 3 times, every. Of hydrangea, you should minimize the frequency in which you water the with... Fertilizer may contribute to droopy hydrangea plants are growing in hydrangeas droop for many reasons, but is! Add mineral fertilizers to the soil have large green leaves be careful not to wet the soil increase... Yellow due to scorching sun 'm noticing yellow leaves on the Bench Today is. Rust needs two hosts to survive and does not kill either of them to help you be successful in soil... Need to reapply it yearly, or when transplanting place you have planted the hydrangea plant do... Wetness, and then you will see the leaves slowly turning yellow – 's...

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